Septoria tritici blotch (STB) is an important stubble borne foliar disease of wheat in Victoria. This disease has increased in importance in the high rainfall cropping regions during the last five years, even though it has been well controlled in Victoria for the last 30 years through the use of partially resistant wheat varieties. The increase in STB in the high rainfall zone has been favoured by stubble retention, intensive wheat production, susceptible cultivars and favourable disease conditions.
When susceptible and very susceptible varieties are grown, septoria tritici blotch is likely to cause annual average losses of up to 20 percent, with much higher individual crop losses possible.
STB is prone to developing resistance to fungicides. Resistance to some triazole (Group 3) fungicides was recently detected in Victoria by Dr Andrew Milgate, NSW Department of Primary Industries. To minimise the chance of further resistance developing it will be important pay careful attention to fungicide strategies and use an integrated approach to management.
The fungus causes pale grey to dark brown blotches on the leaves and to a lesser extent stems and heads. The diagnostic feature of septoria tritici blotch is the presence of black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) within the blotches, (Figure 2.17). These tiny black spots give the blotches a characteristic speckled appearance. When the disease is severe, entire leaves may be affected by disease lesions, (Figure 2.18).
In the absence of the black fruiting bodies, which are visible to the naked eye, similar blotching symptoms may be caused by yellow leaf spot or a nutritional disorder such as aluminium toxicity or zinc deficiency.
The only other disease that has black fruiting bodies within the blotches is septoria nodorum blotch ( Parastagonospora nodorum synonyms Stagonospora nodorum, Septoria nodorum ), but this disease is less common in Victoria.
Figure 2.17 The presence of black fruiting bodies within the blotches is a diagnostic feature of septoria tritici blotch. The only other disease that has similar symptoms is septoria nodorum blotch.
Figure 2.18 Septoria tritici blotch can cause complete death of leaves
Septoria tritici blotch, also called septoria leaf spot or speckled leaf blotch of wheat, is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage Zymoseptoria tritici synonym Septoria tritici ).
Septoria tritici blotch survives from one season to the next on stubble, (Figure 2.19). Following rain or heavy dew in late autumn and early winter, wind borne spores (ascospores) are released from fruiting bodies (perithecia) embedded in the stubble of previously infected plants. These spores can be spread over large distances.
Early ascospore infections cause blotches on the leaves. Within these blotches a second type of fruiting body (pycnidia) are produced. Asexual spores ooze from pycnidia when the leaf surface is wet and spores are dispersed by splash to other leaves where they cause new infections. This phase of disease development depends on the rain splash of spores; therefore Septoria tritici blotch will be most severe in seasons with above average spring rainfall. A combination of wind and rain provides the most favourable conditions for spread of this disease within crops.
Figure 2.19 Disease cycle of septoria leaf blotch of wheat. (Illustration by Kylie Fowler)
An integrated approach that incorporates variety selection, cultural practice, crop rotation and fungicides is the most effective way to manage septoria tritici blotch.
The majority of commercially grown varieties now have partial resistance (ie. they are moderately susceptible) to septoria tritici blotch. This resistance has, to date, been durable and sufficient to effectively control this disease in Victoria.
It is important to avoid very susceptible varieties, if possible, as they will build up inoculum levels. This will cause yield loss in that variety and in adjacent moderately susceptible wheat crops. For information on the resistance status of varieties consult a current Victorian Cereal Disease Guide (AG 1160).
Following a septoria outbreak do not sow wheat into infected stubble and avoid early sowing as a high number of ascospores are released early in the season. If this is not possible, destroying stubble by grazing or cultivation will reduce the number of spores available to infect the new season’s crop. Such practices will have more effect if undertaken on a district basis. However, this practice is not practicable in light soil areas where stubble must be retained to prevent erosion.
Crop rotations are important to ensure wheat is not sown into paddocks with high levels of stubble- borne inoculum. A one-year rotation out of wheat is generally effective to provide a disease break. However, the fungus may survive for over 18 months on stubble during very dry seasons.
Some seed-applied fungicides can suppress early infection and should be used in areas where septoria tritici blotch is known to occur. Where necessary, effective foliar fungicide sprays are available. However, it is important to correctly identify septoria tritici blotch before spraying with a fungicide as nutritional disorders such as aluminium toxicity or zinc deficiency can be confused with septoria tritici blotch.
In high risk areas, the timing of fungicides will be important to achieve adequate disease control. In early sown, susceptible varieties, a fungicide application at growth stage (GS) 31-32 may be required to suppress the disease and protect emerging leaves. Once the flag leaf has fully emerged at GS39, another fungicide application may be required to protect the upper canopy.
Overseas experience has found STB is prone to developing resistance to fungicides; fungicide resistance to septoria tritici blotch was recently detected in Australia.
Resistant mutations of the septoria tritici blotch fungus have been identified in other countries, including New Zealand, the United Kingdom and mainland Europe, therefore it will be important for travellers not to accidentally introduce resistant strains of the STB fungus into Australia after returning home from overseas.
Basic biosecurity hygiene for travellers includes washing clothes and cleaning footwear before returning to Australia or leaving clothing and footwear behind if high risk areas have been visited. Remind family members, employees or others travelling to also take these precautions
Increasing resistance of Zymoseptoria tritici to some triazole (Group 3) fungicides was recently detected in Victoria by Dr Andrew Milgate, NSW Department of Primary Industries.
Two mutations of septoria tritici blotch, giving resistance to triazole fungicides, were identified. These mutations reduce the effectiveness of fungicides rather than making them completely ineffective. However, continue use of triazole fungicides will put further selection pressure on the pathogen and, potentially, new mutations will be selected.
Fungicides with reduced effectiveness to septoria tritici blotch include triadimefon, triadimenol, tebuconazole, propiconazole and epoxiconazole. Epoxiconazole is not registered for control of septoria tritici blotch in Australia.
Dr Milgate found that resistance may not be causing reduced spray efficacy at present, but a strategy to prolong fungicide effectiveness will prolong the life of this fungicide group.
There are a number of methods thought to reduce the selection rate for further mutations.
The first method is to alternate different triazoles, as not all triazole fungicides are affected equally by mutations of the Septoria tritici blotch fungus. This means not using a triazole fungicide, with the same active ingredient, more than once in a crop if multiple sprays are required during the season.
The second is to used fungicides that combine triazoles, such as Tilt Xtra ® (propiconazole and cyproconazole) or Impact Topguard ® (tebuconazole and flutriafol), which are registered for Septoria tritici blotch.
The third is to use fungicides with different modes of action. However, in Australia there is a limited choice of fungicides with different modes of action. Products that combine a strobilurin (Group 11) fungicide with a triazole (Group 3) fungicide may reduce the risk of resistance development. Custodia ® (tebuconazole and azoxystrobin) is registered for Septoria tritici blotch in Australia.
Strobilurins on their own are considered to be at high risk of developing resistance due to their single site mode of action.
In the United Kingdom, resistance to strobilurins is so widespread in the Septoria tritici blotch populations, that they are no longer effective - even in mixtures. Resistance of septoria tritici blotch to strobilurins was recently detected in New Zealand.
While not yet registered in Australia, the SDHI (Group 7) carboxamide fungicides mixed with triazole (Group 3) fungicides are being used in New Zealand and the United Kingdom to manage septoria tritici blotch.
When using fungicides, it is important that growers check the active ingredient, follow label guidelines and ensure maximum residue limits are adhered.
More detailed information can be obtained from the DEDJTR AgNote Series www.vic.gov.au/graindiseases
Victorian Cereal Diseases Guide (AG 1160) www.vic.gov.au/cerealdiseaseguide
Victorian Winter Crop Summary www.vic.gov.au/victorianwintercropsummary
Decimal Growth Scale of Cereals (AG 0013) www.vic.gov.au
SARDI Cereal Seed Treatment Guide www.pir.sa.gov.au
CropLife Fungicide Activity Groups http://www.croplife.org.au
Taking Care with Foliar Fungicides www.vic.gov.au
GRDC Managing Septoria tritici blotch disease in wheat www.grdc.com.au
Plant Health Australia Fact Sheet: Is Your Farm at Risk? www.planthealthaustralia.com.au
Wallwork H (2015) Cereal Seed Treatments (SARDI) http://www.pir.sa.gov.au, Direct link: http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/_data/assets/pdf_file/0005/237920/cerealseedtreat2015_web.pdf
YELLOW (LEAF) SPOT
POWDERY MILDEW OF WHEAT