Identification and Management of Field Crop Diseases in Victoria

Introduction to Crop Diseases
Introduction
What is a Disease?
Disease Development
Disease Cycle: Stages of Development
Diagnosing the Causes of Plant Diseases
Diagnostics Checklist
Distribution of Affected Plants
Symptoms of Common Diseases
Signs Of Common Diseases
Fungi (most common plant pathogen)
Bacteria
Insects and Mites
Nematodes
Genetic Aberration
Guttation Injury (exudation of drops of sap on the tips or edges of leaves)
Herbicide Damage
Mineral Deficiencies
Mineral Excess and Spray Damage (see also saline soils)
Plant Hormones 2, 4-D, etc.
Saline Soils
Toxic Plant Residues
Viruses
Weather – Frost Injury
Weather – Excess Water
Foliar Diseases of Cereals
How Foliar Disease Reduces Yield and Quality
Factors Effecting Disease Damage
Crop Phenology - The Growth Stages
The Integrated Approach to Disease Management
References and Other Useful Sources of Information
RUST OF WHEAT
STRIPE RUST OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Stripe Rust Management
Management Strategies to Minimise the Impact of Stripe Rust
Further Information
LEAF RUST OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Leaf Rust Management
Further Information
STEM RUST OF WHEAT
Disease Cycle
What to Look For
Conditions Favourable to Stem Rust
Pre-Season Management of Stripe Rust
In Crop Management of Stem Rust
Guidelines for Monitoring for Stem Rust in Wheat Crops
When to Spray
Choice of Fungicide
Further Information
YELLOW (LEAF) SPOT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Yellow (Leaf) Spot Management
Further Information
SEPTORIA LEAF BLOTCH OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Septoria Leaf Blotch Management
Fungicide Resistance
Managing Fungicide Resistance
Further Information
POWDERY MILDEW OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Powdery Mildew of Wheat Management
Further Information
RUSTS OF BARLEY
LEAF RUST
What to Look For
Disease Cycle (See Wheat Rust Life Cycles)
STEM RUST
What to Look For
Disease Cycle (See Wheat Rust Life Cycles)
BARLEY GRASS STRIPE RUST
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management of Rusts
Further Information
SCALD OF BARLEY
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Scald of Barley Management
Further Information
NET BLOTCH OF BARLEY
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Economic Importance
Net Blotch Management
Further Information
POWDERY MILDEW OF BARLEY
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Powdery Mildew of Barley Management
Powdery Mildew of Barley Management
Further Information
Soil-borne Diseases of Cereals
Introduction
Disease Identification
Soil Test
Inspection of Cereal Roots
CEREAL CYST NEMATODE (CCN)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Hosts
Management
Disease Breaks for CCN
TAKE-ALL (HAYDIE)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Take-all Management
Disease Breaks for Take-all
RHIZOCTONIA ROOT ROT (aka BARE PATCH)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Hosts
CROWN ROT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Hosts
ROOT LESION NEMATODE (RLN)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Hosts
Further Information
Bunts and Smuts of Cereals
BUNTS AND SMUTS OF CEREALS
Introduction
BUNT OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Receival Standards
Control
LOOSE SMUT OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Receival Standards
Control
FLAG SMUT OF WHEAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Control
COVERED SMUT OF BARLEY
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Receival Standards
Control
LOOSE SMUT OF BARLEY
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Receival Standards
Control
SMUT OF OAT
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Control
KARNAL BUNT OF WHEAT
Further Information
Diseases in Pulses: Chickpeas
DISEASES IN PULSES: CHICKPEAS
ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF CHICKPEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
SCLEROTINIA OF CHICKPEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
PHOMA STEM ROT OF CHICKPEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT OF CHICKPEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
BOTRYTIS GREY MOULD OF CHICKPEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
DAMPING-OFF OF CHICKPEAS AND OTHER ROOT DISEASES
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Further Information
Chickpea disease reaction tables/guides
Diseases in Pulses: Faba Beans
DISEASES IN PULSES: FABA BEANS
CHOCOLATE SPOT OF FABA BEANS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT OF FABA BEANS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT OF FABA BEANS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
CERCOSPORA LEAF SPOT OF FABA BEANS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
RUST OF FABA BEANS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Further Information
Faba Bean disease reaction tables/guides
Diseases in Legumes: Field Peas
DISEASES IN LEGUMES: FIELD PEAS
ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT (BLACKSPOT) OF FIELD PEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF FIELD PEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
DOWNY MILDEW OF FIELD PEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
POWDERY MILDEW OF FIELD PEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
SEPTORIA BLIGHT OF FIELD PEAS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
VIRUSES AFFECTING FIELD PEA
What to Look For
Management
Further Information
Field Pea disease reaction tables/guides
Diseases in Legumes: Lentils
DISEASES IN LEGUMES: LENTILS
ASCOCHYTA OF LENTILS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
BOTRYTIS GREY MOULD OF LENTIL
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
LENTIL ANTHRACNOSE
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Further Information
Lentil disease reaction tables/guides
Diseases in Legumes: Lupins
DISEASES IN LEGUMES: LUPINS
BROWN LEAF SPOT / PLEIOCHAETA ROOT ROT OF LUPINS
Introduction
What to Look For
Pleiochaeta Root Rot
Brown Leaf Spot
PHOMOPSIS STEM AND POD BLIGHT OF LUPINS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT OF LUPINS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
ANTHRACNOSE OF LUPINS
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
Further Information
Lupin disease reaction tables/guides
Viruses
VIRUSES IN CROPS
Introduction
PULSE VIRUSES
What to Look For
CHICKPEA VIRUSES
What to Look For
FIELD PEA VIRUSES
FABA BEAN VIRUSES
LENTIL VIRUSES
LUPIN VIRUSES
Disease Cycle of Viruses
Management of Pulse Viruses
CEREAL VIRUSES
BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS (BYDV)
What to Look For
Wheat
Barley
Oats
Disease Cycle
Grasses
Hosts
WHEAT STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS (WSMV)
What to Look For
CANOLA VIRUSES
TURNIP YELLOWS VIRUS (TUYV) (SYNONYM: BWYV)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Virus Management
TURNIP MOSAIC VIRUS (TUMV)
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Further Information
Canola
DISEASES OF CANOLA AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
Introduction
BLACKLEG
Introduction
Blackleg is Challenging to Control
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
SCLEROTINA STEM ROT
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Warning Signs
Management Options – Before Sowing
Management Options -– After Sowing
ALTERNARIA LEAF AND POD SPOT (BLACK SPOT, DARK LEAF SPOT, ALTERNARIA BLIGHT)
Introduction
What to Look For
Disease Cycle
Management
DAMPING-OFF (SEEDLING BLIGHTS AND SEEDLING HYPOCOTYL ROT)
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
DOWNY MILDEW
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
CANOLA VIRUSES
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
WHITE LEAF SPOT
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
WHITE RUST OR STAGHEAD
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
CLUBROOT IN CANOLA AND JUNCEA CANOLA
Introduction
Symptoms
Disease Cycle
Management
Further Information
Fungicides
INTRODUCTION TO FUNGICIDES
THE DISEASE TRIANGLE!
Other Disease Management Practices and Considerations
BACK TO THE BASICS
What Are Fungicides?
Seed, Fertiliser and Foliar Applications of Fungicides
Mode of Action
Licencing and Use of Chemicals
Fungicide Resistance
Registration of Fungicides
Types of Fungicide Activity (Against the Fungal Target)
Types of Movement Within the Plant
THE TOP 10 CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DETERMINING A FUNGICIDE APPLICATION
The Type and Severity of Disease
Stage of the Crop
The Resistance Rating of the Cultivar
The Environmental Conditions
The Agronomic Practices Used
Quality of Application
Scouting and Accurate Identification of the Problem
Cost of Control vs. Potential Loss
Availability and Cost of Fungicide
Alternate Fungicide Chemistry
Further Information