Broad nutrition resources are outlined in the Agronomists Toolkit. Specific nutrient categories are listed below:



Constraint – Sulphur 

Plant use

  • Sulphur is a macronutrient

  • Sulphur is involved in the formation of several amino acids, proteins, and vitamins and for chlorophyll production

  • It also helps the plant to resist stress from weather, insects and diseases


  • New varieties tend to show chlorotic blotchy 'crisp' leaves in addition to rolled leaves with bright purple undersides that typified old varieties

  • Younger leaves are lime-green, often with interveinal chlorotic mottles and pale leaf margins

  • Leaves are cupped or roll inwards and become thickened and crisp and brittle, with purple undersides

  • Very deficient plants can be prostrate; leaves extend further down the petiole than normal, and jut out horizontally rather than forming a domed canopy

  • Flowers are pale yellow and produce thickened pods with fewer seeds


  • Yield penalty can occur if left untreated


A soil test or a plant tissue test should be used to confirm sulphur deficiency. Application of a suitable amount of sulphur based fertiliser is normally sufficient to correct deficiencies. Foliar sprays generally cannot supply enough sulphur to overcome a severe deficiency in crop. Root restricting constraints such as traffic pans, disease or soil acidity will worsen sulphur deficiency and final yield, even if sulphur is available further down the soil profile.

Links and Resources

AOF - Canola nutrition. Sulphur

Section 5.7 contains limited information on potassium.

AOF - Nutrition. Sulphur

6 page PDF. Section 5.6 contains information on canola requirement, deficiency symptoms, and management. Published 2006.

DAFWA - Farmnote. Sulphur

2 page PDF. Information on occurrence of sulphur deficiency, symptoms, soil and plant tests, and treatment. Published 2006.

DEPI VIC - What nutrients do plants require? Sulphur

Section 6.3.4. Plant uses of sulphur, deficiency symptoms, the sulphur cycle, and discussion of the forms of sulphur. Page last updated 2013.

GRDC - Best Practice Management Guide.Sulphur

Page 35 of 92. Role and deficiency symptoms, soil sulphur and crop requirements. Published 2009.

GRDC - Sulphur strategy

Information on the efficacy of sulfur application in canola. Take home message, introduction, background, recent findings, discussion, and summary. Published 2013.

IPNI - Balanced nutrition in Canola. Sulphur

3 page PDF. Paper about nutrient management of canola. Large section on sulphur nutrition. Published 2011.

IPNI - Canola 4R Guide. Sulphur

Pages 11-12 of 21. General introductory information, the right sulfur source, and the right time for sulfur. Published 2013.