Broad nutrition resources are outlined in the Agronomists Toolkit. Specific nutrient categories are listed below:



Constraint - Aluminium

Plant use

  • In Australia, canola is not recommended for soils below pH 4.5

  • Aluminium is a trace element that can be very toxic to canola when soils are acidic

  • Nutrients such as phodphorus and nitrogen bind to aluminium so are generally less available in acid soils, leading to associated nutrient deficiencies


  • Plants with aluminium toxicity have a shallow stunted root system that is unable to exploit soil moisture at depth

  • The crop does not respond to available nutrients

  • Aluminium toxicity can cause foliar injury due to reduced uptake of nutrients and/or pathogen attack 


  • Seed yield can be drastically reduced through direct aluminium toxicity, or associated nutrient and pest stresses


Soil tests for pH are recommended before growing canola. Both surface and sub soil samples should be taken. Growers should have a good understanding of their soil pH values across the property and should consider liming if the pH is below 4.5. Canola generally responds to lime only one year after application.





Links and Resources

AOF - Canola nutrition. Aluminium

Page 7 of 8. Information on soil acidity and liming, tolerance limits, recommendations for soil tests, associated disorders, symptoms of aluminium toxicity and control strategies.

AOF - Oilseeds WA Aluminium

6 page PDF. Section 5.9 contains information on soil acidity, aluminium toxicity, tolerance, symptoms, and management. Published 2006.

CSIRO - Acid soils- A ticking time bomb. Aluminium

2 page PDF. Lost production, farming and acidity, toxic metals, improved plants, manganese tolerance, and future prospects. Published 2005.

DPI NSW - Soil acidity and liming

24 page PDF. Pages 10 and 11. Impacts of soil acidity, recognising soil acidity, causes, reduction in production, reducing impact, management, estimating rates of soil acidification, and further information. Published 2005.

GRDC - Best Practice Management Guide. Aluminium

Pages 17 and 38. Information on combating low pH soils to avoid aluminium toxicity and aluminium toxicity symptoms. Published 2009.

IPNI - Canola & nutrient deficiencies. Aluminium

Page 15 of 18. Aluminium deficiency is discussed. Written 2011.

IPNI - Canola 4R Guide Aluminium

Page 6 of 21. Information on aluminium toxicity, and suggestions for amelioration. Published 2013.