Broad constraint resources are outlined in the Agronomists Toolkit. Specific constraint categories are listed below:


Poor seed quality

Constraint - Poor seed quality

Green seed


  • Maximum seed weight and oil content has been reached when seed moisture has declined to 35-40 percent 

  • Recommended guidelines to windrow canola are when 40 – 60 percent of seed has changed colour

  •  While the seed is green, seed filling is continuing, accumulating seed weight, protein and oil


  • During the last few days leading up to the recommended windrowing time, canola can increase in yield by 100 kg/ha per day and oil content by between 0.3% and 0.6% per day

  • Timing of harvest is critical to avoid yield loss

  • Recieval standards may penalise seed lots with more than 30 mg/kg of chlorophyll, or reject them entirely


Close monitoring of canola and the ability to harvest within the optimum timeframe are crucial to ensuring the best possible yield result.

Links and Resources

AOF - Chlorophyll in Australian canola

4 page PDF. A paper on the occurrence of green seed in Australia, including prevalence and cause of green oil producing canola.

GRDC - Best Practice Management Guide. Green seed

Page 89. Discusses yield penalties for green seed. Published 2009.

GRDC - Retained seed Fact Sheet

4 page PDF. Key points, wet seed at harvest, harvest, storage, sowing, seed testing, and frequently asked questions. Published 2011.

GRDC. Canola, timing of windrowing