Broad constraint resources are outlined in the Agronomists Toolkit. Specific constraint categories are listed below:



Constraint - Sowing


  • As a general rule, canola establishes best when sown into a moist seed bed at approx. 2 cm depth

  • However sowing below 2.5 cm can be successful if seed is large and there is adequate moisture


  • Emergence can be poor if seed is sown too deep or soil dries quickly

  • High rates of phosphorus fertiliser and sowing into stuble can also reduce establishment

  • Yield loss is generally minor as canola compensates for reduced plant numbers by producing greater amounts of branches and pods


When sowing, use best practice. Using the largest seeded variety suitable, reducing stubble load, sowing into moisture, avoiding sowing deeper than 2.5 cm, limiting fertiliser contact with seed, and using hybrid varieties are all management strategies that can assist to optimise the germination and establishment of canola.

Links and Resources

AOF - Sowing rates

Take home messages, introduction, method, results and commercial practice sowing rates. Published 2007.

PDF BCG - Canola in the Wimmera and Mallee. Sowing

Pages 1 and 2 timing of sowing, page 2 sowing dry and roundup ready canola. Pages 2 and 3 sowing no till, and pages 3 and 4 information and new research findings on sowing rates, retaining seed, and variety choice. Published 2008.

File size: 444kb
DAFWA - Crop updates - Don't sow canola too deep

Take home message, background, details, results, plant establishment, comment, and acknowledgements. Published 1998.

File size: 444kb
DAFWA - Poor Seedbed Soil Structure

Introduction, what to look for in paddock and plant, what else it could be, where does it occur, and management strategies. Page last updated 2014.

File size: 444kb
DAFWA -Sandplain traffic pan

Introduction, what to look for in paddock and plant, wheat else could it be, where did it come from, management strategies, and monitoring. Page last updated 2014.

File size: 444kb
GRDC - Canola establishment

Take home messages, introduction, trial information, effect of stubble on establishment, glasshouse trails, phosphorus rate trails, discussion, and conclusion. Publioshed 2013.

File size: 444kb
GRDC - Crop Placement and Row Spacing Fact Sheet

6 page PDF. Key points. Effect on yield, soil moisture, weed competition, equipment, inter-row cropping, fertiliser, and options. Published 2011.

File size: 444kb
PDF GRDC - Over the bar with better Canola agronomy. Sowing

Pages 7-8 row spacing and plant population effects on yield and oil content. Pages 9-10 effect of fertiliser timing on yield. Pages 17-21 the effect of seed size and sowing rate on yield. Pages 22-23 time of sowing, variety, nitrogen rate and grazing treatment effects on canola yield and oil content. Pages 28-29 knife points and wider rows to keep stubbles. Pages 30-31 sowing systems. Pages 32-...

File size: 1.9mb